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Mastering the Technical Side of Virtual Production

Virtual production is a rapidly growing trend in the film industry, and it’s not hard to see why. This innovative technique allows filmmakers to create stunning, immersive worlds in a fraction of the time and cost of traditional filmmaking. However, it’s is not without its challenges, particularly when it comes to mastering the technical side of the process. In this blog, we’ll explore the key terms and concepts you need to know to successfully navigate the world of virtual production.

What is Virtual Production?

Before we dive in, let’s define what virtual production is. At its core, it is the use of computer-generated environments and virtual cameras to create digital content. This technique allows filmmakers to seamlessly blend live-action footage with computer-generated imagery (CGI) in real-time, giving them unprecedented control over every aspect of the filmmaking process. But to make virtual production work, you need to have a deep understanding of the technical side of the process.

What is a virtual camera?

One of the most important concepts to grasp is the idea of virtual cameras. Filmmakers use virtual cameras to capture footage of digital environments and objects, just as they would use traditional cameras to capture footage of real-world environments and objects. However, virtual cameras are much more flexible and versatile than traditional cameras, allowing filmmakers to move and manipulate the camera in real-time to achieve the desired effect.

To fully understand virtual cameras, you need to be familiar with terms like lens focal length, depth of field, and field of view. Lens focal length refers to the distance between the lens and the sensor, which determines the angle of view and magnification of the shot. Depth of field refers to the range of distance in the shot that appears in focus, while field of view refers to the width of the shot.

What is motion capture?

Another key concept in virtual production is the use of motion capture technology. Motion capture allows filmmakers to capture the movements of real-world actors and transfer them to digital characters, creating a more realistic and natural-looking performance. Motion capture technology involves placing reflective markers on the actor’s body and using cameras to track their movements. The cameras capture data, which is then used to animate digital characters in real-time.

To fully utilize motion capture technology, you need to be familiar with terms like markers, tracking, and retargeting. The filmmakers place small reflective dots called markers on the actor’s body to allow the cameras to track their movements accurately. Tracking refers to the process of analyzing the data captured by the cameras to determine the position and movement of the markers. Retargeting refers to the process of applying the motion data to a digital character, allowing them to mimic the movements of the actor.

What is a real-time engine?

Another important aspect of virtual production is the use of real-time engines. Real-time engines are software platforms that allow filmmakers to create and manipulate digital environments and objects in real-time. These engines are critical to the virtual production process because they allow filmmakers to see the final result of their work as they’re creating it, making it easier to make changes and adjustments on the fly.

To master real-time engines, you need to be familiar with terms like Unity, Unreal Engine, and NDisplay. Developers and designers use Unity and Unreal Engine, two of the most popular real-time engines in virtual production, to create and manipulate digital content using a range of powerful tools. NDisplay is a tool that allows filmmakers to create and preview multi-screen setups, making it easier to plan and execute complex shots.

Finally, it’s essential to understand the role of post-production in virtual production. Despite the real-time nature of virtual production, there’s still a significant amount of post-production work required to create a final product. This work includes tasks like compositing, color correction, and sound design, all of which are essential to creating a polished, professional-looking film.

Key Technical Terms and Concepts

Once you understand the basics of virtual production, it’s time to delve deeper into the technical side of things. Here are some key terms and concepts you need to know:

  1. Virtual Camera: The virtual camera is a digital camera that exists entirely within the virtual environment. Virtual cameras allow real-time shot previewing, aiding filmmakers in capturing the final shot. Additionally, virtual cameras capture camera data, which can later drive physical cameras.
  2. Unreal Engine: Virtual production professionals use Unreal Engine for 3D content creation. The engine is capable of rendering photorealistic images in real-time, making it a popular choice for filmmakers.
  3. LED Walls: People use LED walls, which consist of LED panels, to display virtual environments and provide lighting for actors. LED walls are essential for immersive virtual production and offer creative set design freedom.
  4. Volumetric Capture: Filmmakers use volumetric capture to capture the shape and motion of real-life objects or people in 3D space. They use it in virtual production to create realistic digital versions of actors or objects. The process involves capturing data from multiple cameras and combining it to create a 3D model.
  5. Motion Capture: Motion capture, or mocap for short, is the process of recording the movement of people or objects. Virtual production uses it to capture the movement of actors or objects and transfer it to digital models. Filmmakers can use the data captured to drive virtual cameras or characters in real-time.
  6. Nuke: Nuke is a powerful compositing software used in virtual production. The software combines multiple images or videos into a final composite shot. The film industry widely uses the software, and it is essential for creating seamless visual effects.
  7. DOP: DOP stands for Director of Photography, and they’re responsible for the visual look of the film. In virtual production, the DOP is responsible for lighting and camera work within the virtual environment. They work closely with the director to ensure that the final product looks as intended.
  8. Nit Value: Virtual production uses nit value as a measure of brightness. Getting the Nit value right is crucial for virtual environment creation and affects the final product’s appearance on different screens.
  9. Scan Rate: Screens refresh images at a particular scan rate. Screen-space is key to virtual production, impacting visuals and virtual camera behavior.
  10. NDisplay: In virtual production, people use NDisplay technology to create seamless visual displays across multiple screens. It helps create immersive environments for actors to work in, providing a more realistic experience.


In conclusion, mastering the technical side of virtual production is crucial for anyone looking to enter the industry. Understanding the key terms and concepts outlined in this article is just the first step in the process. To stay ahead of the competition, keeping up with the latest trends and technologies in virtual production is essential. By staying informed and continuously learning, you can become a valuable asset in the world of virtual production.